The trouts are freshwater fish belonging to the Salmonidae family, which are quite related to salmon and chars. They inhabit in cold and clean waters such as rivers and lakes. Join us since it really worths to learn all about them
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Trouts are anadromous fish, that is, they spend most of their life in the sea and return to the rivers to reproduce. They feed on almost any kind of animal such as small fish, crustaceans and insect larvae.
These fish are sometimes quite difficult to classify, since in general terms their coloration varies depending on the season of the year, sunlight, age and even their mood causing them to be commonly called the chameleon fish due to their ease for mimicry.
In general terms we can mention that they have an elongated body, smooth, slender and agile, of silver color with specks of different colors; coloration that becomes very intense when they are about to reproduce.
Their head is robust and the upper jaw reaches beyond the eye.
Another relevant aspect of their anatomy comes from the presence of fins without bones, and all of them have a small adipose fin along the back near the tail.
Their pelvic fins are located at the end of their bodies on each side of the anus and their swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, which allows a quick aspiration and/or expulsion of air.
Classification and Types
Trouts mainly belong to two genera: Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus. The genus Oncorhynchus includes salmon and several species of trouts, while the genus Salvelinus contains several species of trouts that are usually considered chars.
The members of the two genera can be distinguished by the differences in their body color, the shape of the vomer bone and their teeth.
The chars (Salvelinus) usually have red or cream spots and their body is darker in color. In addition, their teeth are placed on the front of the vomer, not on their axis.
The members of this genera whose vomer is shaped like a ship instead of being flat, are regarded as the true char fish
Oncorhynchus trouts usually have red or black spots and their bodies are lighter in color; their teeth are sparser and are located on the axis of the vomer.
Let’s learn about some types of Trouts
Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
This species has a bluish green and dark coloration on the back, with lighter sides and a whitish belly. Both the belly and the back have spots of small size and black color. Moreover, they have a wide band orange or reddish in color on their sides and usually don´t exceed 40 centimeters in length.
Lake Trout (Salmo trutta lacustris)
The trouts of this species can reach up to one and a half meters in length. They inhabit lakes especially in the pre-alpine area and in the Alps at high altitude. Scandinavia, Scotland, Wales and Ireland are other of their common locations.
Brook Trouts: (Salvelinus fontinalis)
The trouts of this species have a fairly large mouth and their upper jaw extends behind the eyes. Their back is olive green with an intense mottled that extends to the dorsal and caudal fins. Their flanks have red spots with light blue halos, while the frontal edges of the pectoral, pelvic and anal fins are white. As for their size it varies between 25-40 cm
Habitat, Alimentation and Reproduction.
Trouts usually live in fresh water, often between submerged objects and deep pools. They are native to the northern hemisphere, but have been widely introd
uced in other areas since the 19th century, such as the Chilean Patagonia and Argentina, Australia and New Zealand, displacing native fish.
As for their diet, it mainly consists of insects, small fish and their eggs, and crustaceans.
Trouts breed between autumn and spring and bury their eggs in a gravel nest made by the female in a stream bed.The few specimens that migrate to the sea between the spawns return to the streams at this time.
Hatching takes place in around two and three months and the juvenile trouts are known as “frys” when they leave the nest and begin to feed on plankton.
This practice is very popular in different countries since like tuna , algae and the vast majority of marine species, they have a high nutritional value in terms of minerals, vitamins and proteins and only a 3% fat content.
The two most popular forms of fishing for these individuals are river fishing and ice fishing. Trouts can be fished with a normal rod and reel, although many fishers also use the fly fishing method, which was originally developed for trouts, and has now been extended to other species.
It is recommended that when fishing trouts, fishermen use the line in the 4-8 lb test for common fishing, and a stronger line with the same diameter for sea and/or lake trouts. Moreover an 8-5 hook size can be employed for trouts of all types.
Trouts fishing under ice usually occurs at depths of 4 to 8 feet. Since trouts are cold water fish, during the winter they move from the depths to the shallow waters in search of food.
It is just at that moment when their fans take advantage of fishing under the ice, but at more accessible depths, whether in a pond, a lake and, in some cases, a river.
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